Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help out locate them while answering some of the questions.
How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems? This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions. In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labor market. Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness. Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hardship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families. Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.
Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labor-market-related hardship. The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty. Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support. Since the number experiencing joblessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer as a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer. For every person counted in the monthly unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job. Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in-kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.
As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and, hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus. There is only one area of agreement in this debate—that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
The author contrasts the 1930’s with the present in order to show that
Which of the following proposals best responds to the issues raised by the author?
The author’s purpose in citing those who are repeatedly unemployed during a twelve-month period is most probably to show that
According to the passage, one factor that causes unemployment and earnings figures to overpredict the amount of economic hardship is the
The author uses ’labour market problems’ in passage to refer to which of the following?
Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage.
In each of the questions given below a sentence is given which is divided into 5 parts. The first part which is numbered (1) and is grammatically correct. You have to find the error in the other numbered part of the sentence and if you find the error in any part of the sentence apart from (1) then that part of the sentence is the correct choice for the given question. If all the parts are grammatically correct choose option 5 as your choice.
(1) If Rajeshwari /(A) would have come (B)/ to me I would have/(C) given her the/(D) help she needed./ (E) No error.
(1) I bade him /(A) to submit all (B)/ the important documents/ (C) before he left /(D) for the meeting./(E) No error.
(1) When we /(A)reached the station /(B) we found /(C) that there was /(D) no place to stand./ (E) No error.
(1) All the pupils /(A) stood up respectively/(B) as soon as /(C) the guru /(D) entered the room/ (E) No error.
(1) When the father /(A) in him/ (B) took charge of the/(C) situation, all the children /(D) shook in their shoes./(E) No error
(1)I had just /(A)reached a hotel which/(B) was inaugurated by the Prime Minister /(C) when my mother called me to bring some mangoes/(D) while coming back home./ (E) No error
(1) If people get /(A)recurring opportunities for /(B)independent thinking they /(C)would better /(D) prepare for it. /(E)No Error
(1) When I first visited Mexicali, /(A)I had heard/(B) rumors about "La Chinesca," a network of basement tunnels/(C) where the city’s Chinese immigrants had/(D) created their own underground Chinatown./(E) No error.
(1) The deepest ocean blue/ (A) rolls with earth green, /(B) each hue primordial /(C) in the force they /(D) exerts on the other./(E) No error.
(1) The school district’s policy change /(A) comes at a time when the state isn’t really sure/ (B) how it can enforce the /(C)bathroom law, which requires people to use the bathroom /(D) according to the gender of their birth certificate./ (E) for No error
Which of the following phrases (I), (II), and (III) given below each sentence will fit into the blank to make the sentence grammatically correct? Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence.
We should realize that the chance of accident _____________________________in a train or on the road.
(I) may be at least as great in our home as
(II) was at least as great as in homes
(III) may be as great or greater in our homes than
Primitive man _____________________________________an imbalance which could be rectified only by punishing the wrongdoer.
(I) believes that a crime created
(II) believed that a crime created
(III) believed that a criminal created
Calamities and indigence in the past _______________________________ than at present.
(I) was afflicted more
(II) were more afflict
(III) may afflict more
______________________________ to keep his promise, he will earn the distrust of all the voters.
(I) If the candidate has failed
(II) Since the candidate has failed
(III) If the candidate fails
It is difficult to prevent assault against environment as _______________________________ animals.
(I) those against
(II) it is against
(III) preventing those against
Top managers are often stymied by the ______________________________ conflict.
(I) difficulties of managing
(II) difficulty for managing
(III) management of difficult
Reaching collective decisions __________________________ individual preferences is an imperfect science.
(I) belonging to
(II) based on
____________________________________, I could not accept his statement that supernatural beings had caused the disturbance.
(I) A realist that I am
(II) Being a realist
(III) Being that I am a realist
Taking good decisions and ___________________________ are the hallmarks of high performing companies.
(I) implement those quickly
(II) implementing those quickly
(III) quick implementing those